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The exponential growth of human activities has changed the biogeochemical cycles 
worldwide in the last century (Sutton et al. 2013b). The scale of these changes has 
increased the necessity to develop joined-up approaches that optimize the planet’s 
nutrient cycles for delivery of our food and energy needs, while reducing threats to 
social and economic well-being, including threats to climate, ecosystem services and 
human health. The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 

Agricultural system has been identified as a playing a key role in  the  Sustainable  Development  Goals  (SDGs)  due  to  the  numerous  challenge  to  produce  enough  food  to  feed  an  increasing population1.

After earlier editions, the 2014 version of the Lake Chilika Ecosystem Health Card is now available.

 One of the major cause of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs which now account for 10 24 and 22% of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively.

The Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment–Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE–GNM) is a global distributed, spatially explicit model using hydrology as the basis for describing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to surface water, transport and in-stream retention in rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs.

This paper offers the technical basis and supporting research for using Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) as a performance indicator to improve global food production and control the potential harmful environmental impacts of excess nitrogen-based compounds from manufactured and animal waste fertilizers. NUE implies a more precise application of nutrients that is based on current agronomic principles in combination with other factors like soil health, water availability, climate, and type of crop.