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 Creating a well-designed MOOC is an interdisciplinary effort emanating from several specialities and input from various disciplines. Evaluating a MOOC also requires utilising various analytics such as descriptive, diagnostic, as well as predictive analytics to inspect the plethora of information arising from learners’ interactions with each other, with the system, with the content, to improve course design, user experience, satisfaction and course effectiveness.

The exponential growth of human activities has changed the biogeochemical cycles 
worldwide in the last century (Sutton et al. 2013b). The scale of these changes has 
increased the necessity to develop joined-up approaches that optimize the planet’s 
nutrient cycles for delivery of our food and energy needs, while reducing threats to 
social and economic well-being, including threats to climate, ecosystem services and 
human health. The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 

After earlier editions, the 2014 version of the Lake Chilika Ecosystem Health Card is now available.

The Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment–Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE–GNM) is a global distributed, spatially explicit model using hydrology as the basis for describing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to surface water, transport and in-stream retention in rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs.

 One of the major cause of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs which now account for 10 24 and 22% of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively.

This paper offers the technical basis and supporting research for using Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) as a performance indicator to improve global food production and control the potential harmful environmental impacts of excess nitrogen-based compounds from manufactured and animal waste fertilizers. NUE implies a more precise application of nutrients that is based on current agronomic principles in combination with other factors like soil health, water availability, climate, and type of crop.

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